the first Obama Administration, Congress reviewed the 2010 Nuclear Posture
Review, the 2012 New START Treaty, and funding plans for the U.S. nuclear
enterprise. Specifically, even though the United States plans to reduce
the number of warheads deployed on its long-range missiles and bombers,
consistent with the terms of the New START Treaty, it also plans to develop
new delivery systems for deployment over the next 20-30 years. The 113th Congress will continue to review these programs during the
annual authorization and appropriations process.
During the Cold War, the U.S. nuclear arsenal contained many types of delivery
vehicles for nuclear weapons. The longer-range systems, which included
long-range missiles based on U.S. territory, long-range missiles based on
submarines, and heavy bombers that could threaten Soviet targets from
their bases in the United States, are known as strategic nuclear delivery
vehicles. At the end of the Cold War, in 1991, the United States deployed
more than 10,000 warheads on these delivery vehicles. That number has
declined to less than 6,000 warheads today, and is slated to decline to
1,550 warheads by the year 2017 if the New START Treaty enters into force.
At the present time, the U.S. land-based ballistic missile force (ICBMs)
consists of 450 Minuteman III ICBMs, each deployed with between one and
three warheads; they will all be reduced to only one warhead over the next
few years, and the fleet will decline to, at most, 420 missiles. The Air
Force is also modernizing the Minuteman missiles, replacing and upgrading their
rocket motors, guidance systems, and other components. The Air Force had
expected to begin replacing the Minuteman missiles around 2018, but
decided, instead, to continue to modernize and maintain the existing
missiles, so that they can remain in the force through 2030; it is, once
again, considering what to do to sustain the missiles after 2030.
The U.S. ballistic missile submarine fleet currently consists of 14 Trident
submarines; each carries 24 Trident II (D-5) missiles. The Navy converted
4 of the original 18 Trident submarines to carry non-nuclear cruise
missiles. The remaining submarines currently carry around 1,000 warheads
in total; that number will decline as the United States implements the New
START Treaty. The Navy has shifted the basing of the submarines, so that
nine are deployed in the Pacific Ocean and five are in the Atlantic, to
better cover targets in and around Asia. It also has undertaken efforts to
extend the life of the missiles and warheads so that they and the submarines can
remain in the fleet past 2020, and to begin design work on a new submarine.
The U.S. fleet of heavy bombers includes 19 B-2 bombers and 94 B-52 bombers.
The B-1 bomber is no longer equipped for nuclear missions. The fleet will
decline to around 60 aircraft in coming years, as the United States
implements New START. The Air Force has also begun to retire the
nuclear-armed cruise missiles carried by B-52 bombers, leaving only about half
the B- 52 fleet equipped to carry nuclear weapons. The Air Force plans to
procure both a new long-range bomber and a new cruise missile over the
next 20 years.
The Obama Administration is completing a review of the size and structure of
the U.S. nuclear force, and a review of U.S. nuclear employment policy, as
it implements the 2010 Nuclear Posture Review. It is also implementing the
New START Treaty with Russia that will limit the number of deployed
missiles and warheads in the U.S. strategic force. Congress will review the Administration’s
plans for U.S. strategic nuclear forces during the annual authorization and appropriations
process, and as it assesses U.S. plans under New START and possible future arms control
treaties with Russia.
Date of Report: January 14, 2013
Number of Pages: 39 Order Number: RL33640 Price: $29.95
For email and phone orders, provide a Visa, MasterCard, American Express, or Discover card
number, expiration date, and name on the card. Indicate whether you want e-mail
or postal delivery. Phone orders are preferred and receive priority processing.