Coast Guard’s proposed FY2013 budget includes $8 million in acquisition funding
to initiate survey and design activities for a new polar icebreaker. The
Coast Guard’s Five Year Capital Investment Plan includes an additional
$852 million in FY2014-FY2017 for acquiring the ship. The Coast Guard
anticipates awarding a construction contract for the ship “within the next five years”
and taking delivery on the ship “within a decade.” The project to design and
build a polar icebreaker is a new acquisition project initiated in the
Coast Guard polar icebreakers perform a variety of missions supporting U.S.
interests in polar regions. The Coast Guard’s two existing heavy polar
icebreakers—Polar Star and Polar Sea— have exceeded their
intended 30-year service lives, and neither is currently operational. Polar Star
was placed in caretaker status on July 1, 2006. Congress in FY2009 and
FY2010 provided funding to repair it and return it to service for 7 to 10
years; the Coast Guard expects the reactivation project to be completed in
December 2012. On June 25, 2010, the Coast Guard announced that Polar
Sea had suffered an unexpected engine casualty; the ship was unavailable for
operation after that. The Coast Guard placed Polar Sea in commissioned,
inactive status on October 14, 2011.
The Coast Guard’s third polar icebreaker—Healy—entered service in 2000.
Compared to Polar Star and Polar Sea, Healy has less
icebreaking capability (it is considered a medium polar icebreaker), but
more capability for supporting scientific research. The ship is used primarily
for supporting scientific research in the Arctic.
The reactivation of Polar Star will result in an operational U.S. polar
icebreaking fleet consisting for the next 7 to 10 years of one heavy polar
icebreaker (Polar Star) and one medium polar icebreaker (Healy).
The new polar icebreaker for which initial acquisition funding is requested in the
FY2013 budget would replace Polar Star at about the time Polar Star’s
7- to 10-year reactivation period ends.
Potential issues for Congress regarding Coast Guard polar icebreaker
modernization include the potential impact on U.S. polar missions of the
United States currently having no operational heavy polar icebreakers; the
numbers and capabilities of polar icebreakers the Coast Guard will need in
the future; the disposition of Polar Sea; whether the new polar
icebreaker initiated in the FY2013 budget should be funded with
incremental funding (as proposed in the Coast Guard’s Five Year Capital
Investment Plan) or full funding in a single year, as normally required under
the executive branch’s full funding policy; whether new polar icebreakers
should be funded entirely in the Coast Guard budget, or partly or entirely
in some other part of the federal budget, such as the Department of
Defense (DOD) budget, the National Science Foundation (NSF) budget, or both;
whether to provide future icebreaking capability through construction of new
ships or service life extensions of existing polar icebreakers; and
whether future polar icebreakers should be acquired through a traditional
acquisition or a leasing arrangement.
Date of Report: December 21, 2012
Number of Pages: 65 Order Number: RL34391 Price: $29.95
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